Tuesday, December 31, 2019

War On Terror Vs. Health Insurance - 1867 Words

War on Terror vs. Health Insurance Paul Framer said, â€Å"The idea that some lives matter less is the root of all that is wrong with the world.† Judging by what has happening in the world, between the war on terror and corrupt health care system, Framer statement has never been more right. Since when did it become executable to determine which lives matter more based on how they die and how they live. The emphasize has been placed on the lives that were taken from us due to the 9/11 attacks, yet since them over half-million Americans have died due to too little or no access to health insurance and we have yet to start a war on health insurance. On September 11th, 2001, the United States became a state of terror. The country would be forever changed. Over 3,000 people died that day, but how many have died since then due to lack of access to health care. The number of death is over ten times that amount. Do their lives matter more because they died from something they have control over? Brave men and women gave their lives to save the victims of 9/11 and other innocent people died, yet we give our attention to the cruel people who took their lives. We give more attention to the ‘bad guys’ than we do the ‘good guys’ and we do not give any attention to people who are suffering because they have little or no access to health care. It is evident that we are fighting a war on terror. Since 9/11, our nation has taken precautions to insure our safety. We have sent thousands ofShow MoreRelatedBarack Obama s Presidential Election981 Words   |  4 Pagesof creating equality, prioritizing diplomacy over war, challenging corporate greed, generating jobs for rising unemployed, and reforming healthcare to provide coverage for all citizens. (creating equality) The presidential election of Barack Obama is easily one of the most momentous events in the history of U.S. racial relations. It was certainly a progressive milestone added to the history books along with the Emancipation Proclamation, Brown vs. Board of Education, the Civil Rights Act of 1964Read More Research Paper: Elections 2008 - Barack Obama2125 Words   |  9 Pagesis facing various hardships such as struggling economy, poor health care, two wars, pollution, excessive relying on exported oil and illegal immigration. Both Barack Obama and John McCain expressed in the campaigns their points of views and possible solutions for these problems. Obama, the candidate from the Democratic Party, proposed answers on improvements on situation in the United States. One of the major issues nowadays is the health care. There are many reasons why it is so controversial andRead MoreThe World Trade Center Building1375 Words   |  6 PagesSurvivor’s Story). Stories like these are a dime a dozen, although many were not as lucky as Roz. The attack on September 11th, 2001 forever changed the lives of many and the consequences had a radical effect on all aspects of life including politics, health, and discrimination acts. The September 11th incident itself consisted of the hijacking of four flights. American Airlines flight 11 was set to depart from Boston to Los Angeles at 8:00 a.m. The hijackers used knives to stab some of the flight attendantsRead MoreIndividual Privacy vs National Security5833 Words   |  24 PagesIndividual Privacy VS National Security John Williams ENG 122: GSE 1244A Instructor: Ebony Gibson November 1, 2012 Individual Privacy VS National Security Introduction Since the terrorist attack of 9/11, America has been in a high level conflict with terrorist around the world, particularly the group known as Al Qaeda. There has been many discussions within the U.S. Congress about the measures of how to effectively combat this organization and their members, here and abroad. ConsequentlyRead MoreLegacy Of The Great Society : The National Endowment For The Arts2643 Words   |  11 PagesAmerican majority† (p. 27). Some saw support for new styles of art as a form of censorship against more traditional styles. Others questioned the need for government support of the arts at all. One Representative reminded his colleagues that the Vietnam War was on, and â€Å"We cannot have guns and butter. And this is guns with strawberry shortcake covered with whipped cream and a cherry on top† (p. 28). Nevertheless, appropriations were granted. As LBJ’s presidency came to an end it highlighted the need forRead MoreCaterpillar Company Analysis Essay4206 Words   |  17 PagesCaterpillar engines and remanufacturing services for other companies. The third business segment is Financial Products. This segment contains two major subsidiaries called CAT Financial Services, which sells financial products, and CAT Insurance Holdings, which provides insurance on Caterpillar’s machines and engines (CAT 10K, 2011). Competitive Environment Caterpillar faces different types of competition from various companies in each of their three major lines of business. The competitive environmentRead MoreHuman Nature And Human Diversity2568 Words   |  11 Pages† (Harris 45) In a visit to the Holy Land, Dawkins had first hand experience in seeing the religious divide between Islam and Judaism. (The Root of All Evil- The God Delusion) Hitchens agrees that as a product of faith, religious hatred has waged a war between otherwise good people. â€Å"But faith is still the mother of hatred here, as it is wherever people define their moral identities in religious terms.† (Hitchens 30) Dawkins also speaks on Jerusalem’s Old City where he witnessed the role of faithRead MoreIb History Rise of the Single State Parties6245 Words   |  25 Pageslist and connect each source to the question, also include own knowledge Question 4 - Mini Essay Timeline -Paris Peace Conference 01/25/1919 ââ€"  Wilson’s 14 points 01/08/1918 ââ€"‹ self determination ââ€"  Germany accepted 14 points on 10/23/1918 ââ€"  World War I armistice 11/11/1918 ââ€"  Delegations ââ€"‹ Woodrow Wilson (US) - neutral, wanted to make peace, reductions of arms, no secret diplomacy ââ€"‹ Georges Clemenceau (France) - hated Germany ââ€"‹ David Lloyd George (GB) - allow Germany to recover the trade route ââ€"‹Read MoreMarketing Mistakes and Successes175322 Words   |  702 Pagesinsights, we can also learn from successes and find nuggets by comparing the unsuccessful with the successful. With the addition of Google and Starbucks, we have moved Entrepreneurial Adventures up to the front of the book. We have continued Marketing Wars, which many of you recommended, and reinstated Comebacks of firms iii iv †¢ Preface rising from adversity. I have also brought back Ethical Mistakes, because I believe that organizations more than ever need to be responsive to society’s best Read MorePeculiarities of Euphemisms in English and Difficulties in Their Translation19488 Words   |  78 PagesCHAPTER III. TRANSLATION OF EUPHEMISMS 34 III.1. Grammatical Difficulties in Translation 34 III.2. Lexical Difficulties in Translation of Euphemisms 36 III.3. Stylistic difficulties in translation of euphemisms 41 III.4. Terrorism and war articles in translation of euphemisms 44 CONCLUSION 54 BIBLIOGRAPHY 57 ANNEX 60 INTRODUCTION This Diploma thesis is devoted to the problem of euphemisms in the English language. Euphemism (from Greek word

Monday, December 23, 2019

Why Was the Roman Legion so Powerful - 1306 Words

Throughout the years the armies of ancient Rome have invaded and conquered most of Europe. For quite a long time other civilizations feared them because of their massive, well trained legions of soldiers. Some people might have read about their feats in battle elsewhere. Often research focuses solely on the strategies and technology employed by Rome in times of battle, but what about the soldiers themselves? People usually think of the Roman military as a well oiled machine that acted precisely and consistently, but there have been multiple documented mutinies throughout the Roman army over time. What kind of training did they go through after they were drafted into the Roman military? Was their training both physical and mental to try to†¦show more content†¦All of this training happened out under the scorching sun just as it would in battle. They had to master leaping over trenches and climbing up embankments, however they had to be very careful how and where they practice d, as climbing over the walls of their camp was punishable by death (Stout 428). Aside from various movement related training, they practiced accurately hurling spears, as this was a part of their main battle tactics. All practice with weapons was done under the supervision of a campidoctor (drill sergeant). Stakes the height of a man were set up and used as targets for soldiers to practice their hand eye coordination. The dummy wooden weapons that recruits trained with were reportedly about two times as heavy as their real equipment would be. This was so their muscles would grow accustomed to attacking with something heavy, thus making it even easier to use their lighter weight weapons. During their weaponry training, after hurling their javelins at the target, they would draw a club and run towards the target as if they were a real enemy, taking leaps to either side while approaching. After approaching, they would proceed to practice dodging, feinting, and attacking in close proxi mity, with a campidoctor alerting the recruit of any weaknesses in his defenses. All of this intensive training gave them the confidence to march into battle effortlessly and fearlessly, but whoShow MoreRelatedRoman Empire : The Greatest Empire Of That Time1131 Words   |  5 Pages Roman Army Ancient Rome was an empire that stretched over two million square miles, at its height. It reached the shores of the Rhine River to the Caspian Sea, and along the outskirts of Africa to Spain (Eyewitness to History, 2007). The empire was an advancement for humankind, combining multiple cultures for trading, and the collaboration of different peoples for science. Overall, it was an empire so large, that during that time, one in every four people on the planet were under Roman rule (PBSRead MoreA Roman Tribune And What Are Their Role Society? Why Are Marullus And Flavius Worried?1081 Words   |  5 PagesWhat is a Roman Tribune, and what is their role society? Why are Marullus and Flavius worried about Caesar? During the 100 B.C (the year Julius Caesar was born), one of the most successful empires was the Roman Empire. Emperor after emperor, it kept being successful and conquering the land it needs by inventions and different contributions the known world today. The reason for this empire’s success is that it was very organized in everything it conducted. The Roman Empire was very wellRead MoreThe Powerful Roman Empire On Ancient Times1118 Words   |  5 PagesJayan Joshi History 9 Mrs. Santosuosso 2/10/16 The Powerful Roman Empire The Roman Empire was one of the most well known empires in history. It was the most powerful of all of the empires and covered at least a part of over fifty present-day countries. It covered the most area out of all of the empires in history. Other than the Spartans, the Roman Empire had the most powerful army of the ancient world and contained over 20% of the world population back then. The Roman’s ingenuity created many inventionsRead MoreAncient Rome And Its Effects On The World1553 Words   |  7 PagesAncient Rome was built on hills, the people living on the top of the hills, and farming closer to the bottom. The climate of Ancient Rome was humid and cool and ranged from 55 to 95 Fahrenheit year round. The Alps to the far north of Rome protected them from threats coming from North Europe, while not isolating them on the peninsula. Being on the Italian peninsula was useful for trading and sailing to other areas in the Mediterranean to conquer land. Rome did not trade as much as some other civilizationsRead MoreAfter The Fall Of Tarquinius Superbus’ Reign Of Rome, The1318 Words   |  6 Pagesnew era in Roman history: the republic. The early republic is mostly a patrician favoring institute and created it in order â€Å"to restore power and privileges that popular royal tyrants had usurped from them† and to make it â€Å"difficult for any one aristocrat to acquire too much power at the expense of the rest† (Ward 59). Greek historian, Polybius, in his book, Histories, talks about the greatness of this Roman republic and its constitution by claiming: â€Å"Now the elements by which the Roman constitutionRead MoreWhy the Boudica Fought the Romans Essay1370 Words   |  6 PagesWhy the Boudica Fought the Romans The History of the Celtic People The Iceni were a Celtic tribe which resided in Norfolk and Suffolk in the east of Britain. Boadicea was part of this noble and warlike people, the Keltoi or in Latin, Celtae. The Celts of the first century appear to be farmers, traders and crafts people. Frank Delaney 1989 quotes from Strabo writing in the first century saying â€Å"They wear ornaments of gold, torcs on their necks and bracelets onRead MoreThe Decline Of The Roman Empire1463 Words   |  6 Pagesthe decline of the Roman Empire? Why? The fall of the Western Roman Empire is a very broad topic because there were a multitude of continuous events that led to the disappearance of one of the most legendary empires of the world. The seemingly unstoppable Roman Empire would fall due to the fact that many aspects that made Rome such a dominant empire began to fade. Rome was the center of the world and the thought that such a power in the world could decrease was outstanding. It was not built in a day;Read MoreThe Fall Of Rome s Collapse1199 Words   |  5 Pagesempire which included much of modern day Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East. Although many historians and professors claim the fall of the Roman empire was because of excess and corruption, invasions by barbarian tribes, military overspending, economic problems, Christianity and the loss of traditional values and the weakening of the Roman legions created a situation that made the fall of such a large empire inevitable. One of the biggest main causes for Rome’s collapse is due to a numberRead MoreThe During The Middle Ages2108 Words   |  9 Pages The way that Rome accomplished this was by defeating the peoples that ruled the land they wanted and incorporating them into their ever expanding empire. The reason the Romans were so successful at doing this is because of their technological advances, logistical capabilities, and ability to implement strategy efficiently and safely. These when put together allow an army during the Middle ages to deploy consistently with high moral and low mortality. Romans dominated the battlefield in almost everyRead MoreEvolution Of The Purpose And Power Of Roman Military1701 Words   |  7 PagesPower of the Roman Military In the lifetime of Rome, from a monarchy to a republic, and also its final days as a empire, it has shown to be one of the world s most powerful military forces against almost any enemy it faced, despite the losses that followed. Also that in the history of Rome has show to use the military as an instrument of power to gain leverage in the political status and standing of Rome. Throughout its history and different tactics it used, the Roman Army was shown to be a

Sunday, December 15, 2019

Different situations Free Essays

There are different situations in the workplace that creates different responses in the way we view things. These events give us various reactions that either can create a positive or negative impact in how our superiors perceive us. Seeing this, it may be a result of a responsive behavior at one point in time each where each of us experienced being unprofessional or exhibited an unlikely behavior. We will write a custom essay sample on Different situations or any similar topic only for you Order Now In the end, as we consider these things and ponder on its relative results, we decipher lessons and ideas that will make us better professionals in our respective fields. One thing that I had observed in our workplace is signs of relationships among the opposite sex. Though the department does not really prohibit romantic association between colleagues, it is highly discouraged. However, there are still couples who hide behind these parameters and try to sneak their affairs within office hours and boundaries. I remember seeing one scene at an early hour wherein two officemates were caught by the camera being intimate with each other. The sad thing about this is that the two persons are well connected with upper management that is why they are not reprimanded that much. This came to my attention and bothered me because it should be given appropriate action such as memorandum or an amendment of rules so as not to create patronage among other people. I filed a personal complaint of what happened but management gave a shrug and said that they were doing this before office hours and therefore was not their scope or priority. Though there was no apparent effect in the overall workplace, it instilled into many workers that such actions can be deemed acceptable provided that you have enough connections in upper management. Seeing this, it is in here that the overall mission and rules have been compromised. It became a standard for those who are willing to follow it and can be bent if you know the right persons. This primary example can be a catalyst for future violations not only related to intimacy within the workplace but also on other areas such as attitudes and behaviors. This is why this issue should not have been handled this way. Upper management must realize that no one must be above the rules and standards. Though it is true that it was not yet office time that the incident happened; the act was still initiated in company property which makes the suspects liable. Moreover, their actions can be considered unprofessional in nature because the time and location where the act was initiated was not appropriate and fit to their given or assigned responsibilities. Due to this, it is only right for them to be given a memo or severe penalties for their actions. If this initiative were enacted, workers and co-employees can see that the company is committed towards the strict implementation of its rules and regulations. It will garner confidence among individuals that management is fair and transparent and does not hold favoritism between individuals. Likewise, it can increase accountability among each one by creating an environment that makes them responsible with their decisions and foster cooperation and harmony. To conclude, blunders and mistakes normally occur within the workplace. Despite this, managers and management must take an active stand in promoting what is supposed to be done and ensure that all employees follow the necessary rules and regulations to maintain the level of professionalism and foster equality pursuant to the vision and mission of the company/ organization. How to cite Different situations, Papers

Saturday, December 7, 2019

Information Security Social Engineering

Question: Describe about Information Security, Social Engineering and Problems occur with social engineering? Answer: Introduction: Security is mainly concerned about the fact whom to trust. It is important to know about when to keep trust and to ignore. It often happens that someone told his personal information to someone else while communicating, though keeping trust on the websites or social media is not safe due to the intruders, who hack the website form the middle of the conversation or some time it may happen that the device is being used for the communication is not legitimate. Generally the user with less knowledge of online scams and also the users, who newly stepped into the social sites, may face the problem caused by the hackers, intruders. Users, who have the less knowledge about the security tools, which are most applicable for their device even can easily keep their faith over the online friends and the online media to reach friends and family can become the victim of the social engineering. Introduction to Information Security Information security is nothing but the method of securing data, giving protection to datas confidentiality, availability and the integrity of information. There are few key information security concepts which are involved in the process of securing data, Such as- Access: Access ca referred as a objects capacity to use, modify, manipulate or can affect another object. A legitimate user can have the authorized access to the system, where the illegal user do not have authorized access to the system and its data. Assets: Assets can be referred as the resources that have gained the focus to get protection. Assets can be the physical devices in use or the information about the websites, it can be the person with expertise and it may be the computer system or other physical object. Attack: Attack can be referred as the intentional or unintentional act of damaging physical system or the confidential data. Exploit: This technique is use to take advantage of a system. The threat agents may cause the unethical access of the data for their personal gain. Exposure: It is a condition of the system or the system component, when the system is vulnerable enough to welcome the hacker. Loss: A single event of damage caused by the unauthorized discloser or the modification. Security profile: The total set of security measures and the control including awareness, training, policy and technology that need to be implemented in order to give protection. Threat: Threat can be the person, object, or those entities that can cause danger to the assets. Threat agent: Threat agent can be identified as the component of threat. E.g. a hacker is a threat agent (Axelrod, Bayuk and Schutzer, 2009). Vulnerability: Vulnerability can be referred as the weakness in system. 1. Social Engineering: Social Engineering is a attractive method to manipulate people, so that they can give their confidential data, such as, their user name, password, bank details. The information types, which are mainly concern of these kinds of hackers, can vary. When an individual is targeted, the criminals usually try to tick a person to access his computer secretly by motivating him to download some malicious software into their system. All these information give privilege to the hackers to access personal data as well as control over victims computer. Criminals keep using tactics on social engineering, as it is easiest one to exploit someones natural tendency to trust then it makes the way to hack the software or the whole system (Katsikas and Gritzalis, 2006). Security is mainly concerned about the fact whom to trust. It is important to know about when to keep trust and to ignore. It often happens that someone told his personal information to someone else while communicating, though keeping trust on the websites or social media is not safe due to the intruders, who hack the website form the middle of the conversation or some time it may happen that the device is being used for the communication is not legitimate. As a common social engineering attack it may appear as message or as a mail form a legitimate user, where a criminal manages to socially engineer one persons email id and password and have access to his personal contact list in mailing account. In this the hackers have control over the email account and send messages to all of his friends social pages (Cheswick and Bellovin, 1994). 2. Findings: When a hacker does social engineering and sends message to other persons account, then that person may be asked for some verification by clicking on the link. After clicking on the link, it may ask for the personal information. The link location may seem very legitimate with the contents, logo. Some time all content the link is containing may be copied from some legitimate site, so it also looks legitimate. If someone trusts this link, they are asked to provide information (Zelkowitz, 2004). While phishing is concerned, there are several types of phishing, such as- Baiting: Baiting happens when an attacker intentionally leaves his physical device totally malware-affected at such a place, where it sure to be found. When finder picks up that device and loads these devices onto his computer, the user keep installing the malware in absence of its awareness. Phishing: Phishing take place when a malicious third party sends a fraudulent message or mail cloaked as a legitimate message or email. It often act as a coming from trusted source. This message is intended to trap the recipient to install the malware on his system or device or ask some financial information (Katsikas and Gritzalis, 2006). Pretexting: Pretexting takes place, when one party gives false information about them to another party in order to take the original information about the recipient. Quid pro quo: A quid pro quo happens when attacker ask for the personal information in exchange of credentials. For example, attackers may ask for the exchange of credentials with some attractive gifts. Spam: Spam is generally an unwanted junk message or mail. Spear Phishing: In this method of phishing, a modified approach is used for an organization or individual. In these kinds of cases attacker tries to revel personal information to a specific organization, so that they can obtain the trade secrets or the financial data (Kirkby, 2001). Tailgating: When an unauthorized party keeps following another legitimate party into an secured and verified location, usually for stealing the confidential information and the valuable property. 3. Problems occur with social engineering: Those people who take bait may become the victim with wicked software that is able to generate numbers of exploits against their contact and their personal information. It may cause to lose money without receiving the purchased items (Lai, 2012). It sometime happens that there are such proposals online to fasten the speed of the operating or to fix the bugs of the operating system for free. The moment someone gives response to these trap, become victim of exploitation. There are several of social engineering attacks. In a single attack may hacker can give someone experience of exploits in multiple forms. Then the criminal sell the information to others, so that other person can use the information to exploit that person, even friends and friends of friends of that person can be affected to (Merkow and Breithaupt, 2000). 4. Way to carry out the problems: To be aware of these attacks, an online user may flow some basic advices, to not to become victim of these kinds of attacks (Oriyano, 2013). User must slow down himself while there is a suggestion to take steps in urgent. Spammers try to trap someone to act before think. If there is a message of urgency to choose some option, it is then advised not to go with the flow and keep the careful review not influenced. Before acting upon any kind of malicious information user must have some researches upon that giver information. User must delete all those requests which generally ask for the a/c information or financial information. User must reject help offers. As any legitimate company never offer help personally contacting someone over mail or messages. User must be aware about any kind of download when someone is not sure about the content of the file or about the sender. In this scenario downloading can be a mistake. Some time receiving offers of foreign lottery are not legitimate. They may request to transfer money from a foreign country, which are easily recognizable as a scam. User must set the spam filters to high. User must secure its computer devices by automatically or manually updating the operating system of his device. He can also use anti-phishing tools to get alert about the risks (Wright, 2014). 5. Who are the victims? Generally the user with less knowledge of online scams and also the users, who newly stepped into the social sites, may face the problem caused by the hackers, intruders. Users, who have the less knowledge about the security tools, which are most applicable for their device even can easily keep their faith over the online friends and the online media to reach friends and family can become the victim of the social engineering (Peltier, Peltier and Blackley, 2005). 6. Recent trend: Attackers are increasing these days along with their increasing threats of social engineering, which is going beyond the targeted employees and trying to trap the employees to give up their information (Vacca, 2007). Cryptography 1. Significance and Functionality of different stages of cryptographic system: Cryptography system has much significance with predetermined functionality. Cryptography is mainly use to convert the plain text into cipher text (Phoha, 2002). Different stages of cryptography system is- There three stages of cryptography given in an order- Plain text Cipher text Plan text Functionality at different stage: Sender sends data as plain text, which is readable and can be modified by the sender, receiver and everyone else. When data passes through the encryption algorithm, there will be an application of encryption key. At the sender end, senders public key and receivers private will be used to encrypt the data. After this process the data become cipher text. When the cipher text arrives to the intended user, the receiver uses senders public key to decrypt the text. Senders public key will be known to everyone (Preetham, 2002). Numbers of cryptographic standards are there. There are standard protocols and algorithm to build popular application, which attracts a huge amount of cryptanalysis. Specific standards for Encryption: Triple-DES CipherSaber The original algorithm for public key encryption, RSA. OpenPGP Advanced Encryption standard. Data Encryption Standard. Hash standards: SHA-1, which is 160 bits MD5, which is 128 bit SHA2, it is available in different bit variance of 224, 256, 384,512, 616 and 680 PBKDF2, it is a key derivation function. Digital Signature Standards: RSA Digital Signature Standard, which is applied on Digital Signature Algorithm Elliptic Curve DSA PKI (Public-Key infrastructure) standards: 509 public key certificates. Wireless Standards: Wi-Fi protected Access, which known as WAP and better than WEP. It is a pre-standard and partial version of 802.11i. MD5 standard: MD5 is method of encryption, where the plain text is converted in cipher text. The security of MD5 hash function is compromised severely. MD5 algorithm takes message as input. Messages are of different length (as per requirement) and generate an output of 128 bit messages digest or finger print of the input (Reddy and Padmavathamma, 2007). The intention behind the application of this security algorithm is to compress a large file in a secure manner before the encryption with a private key under a public key cryptosystem (PGP). Network Security fundamentals a) Reason behind limiting rate to reduce the damaged caused due to DDoS attacks: A DNS amplification attack is the popular form of DDoS (Distributed Denial of Service) attack. In this case attackers use open DNS servers, which is publicly accessible by the attackers to flood a under fire system with DNS response traffic. The primary method in this attack is to send an open DNS server a lot of DNS lookup request. Where server gives IP address to the client assuming it a legitimate user but in the middle way, the fraud one get all the response and the legitimate one keeps starving for its turn. Lastly the DNS pool is empty enough to give response to the requests (Shim et al., 2000). The attacking method is closely related to open recursive resolvers, but it seems to be more difficult to mitigate. In this it is the reason why delay should focus on using the Response Rate Limiting to give restriction on the amount of traffic. b) Opinion and reason behind limiting rates can limit effectiveness too: Rate limiting is mostly used on the ISPs router, which is used to connect the home network to the WWW (World Wide Web). If someone is experiencing a flood attack, which is saturating the internet link may not that scenario where rate limiting will work for the improvement of the scenario. Rate limiting restricts the huge amount of outbound traffic. For example, if someone is victim of Smurf attack, he or she can use the rate limiting as a solution for short span of time to limit the traffic flood that he is sending to the attackers network (St. Denis and Johnson, 2007). c) Causes behind giving protection to the community problem due to the DDoS attack: As far as the DDoS attacks are concerned, attackers can easily achieve control of the infected bots to initiate the attack. They even amplify the attacks by exploiting the vulnerable areas in public services. This public services use the UDP (user datagram protocol) such as Network time protocol or the Domain name system services. Due to all these reason DDoS attacks are difficult to manage, due to its high capital costs of building infrastructure of attack mitigation and also the lack of proficiency in operating protected network. These are the reason why it is not only confined within the individual victims firms, but a community problem to deal (Stewart, 2011). d) Justification behind holding an effective defense by black against DDoS attack: Yes, Black hole routing has an effective impact against DDoS attacks. Black hole routing is known as the range of IP address or the IP address, which results the coming packets rather than being discarded, it protect the system resource for the wicked effects of DDoS. It also causes the packets to discard with malicious traffic attack (The Basics of Information Security, 2014). Firewalls Firewall is known as a security system in computing where it uses some protocols and packet filtering mechanism to give protection to the system, where the firewall is installed. It keeps users notified about malicious act going on behind the scene. Many hardware based firewall is also there which provide functionality to internal network, such as DHCP server for a network (Tipton and Krause, 2005). 1. Comparison between the different filtering mechanisms and information on the protocol used in firewall: Stateful packet inspection filtering Static packet filtering Application Proxy filtering Network Address Translation Static packet filtering is replace by the stateful packet inspection filtering It filtering technique has come prior to the stateful packet filtering It stands between two parties and requires the client to initiate the session with the proxy, then the proxy creates a session with the destination In firewall NAT functionality is used in order to hide the original address of the protected hosts. Analysis of the packets are done in the application layer Only packet headers are checked Proxy server checks from layer 4 to layer 7 for the valid connection Its functionality is used in order to address the limited number of routable IPv4 address Stateful packet inspection is able to monitor the communication of the packets over the time span. Static packet filtering only operates as per the administrator defined rules As the client set the session with proxy, which in turn authenticate the other side connection (destination) before the creation of the session Routable IPv4 addresses are assigned to the organization or to the individuals for providing enough public address space with a reduced cost. Conclusion: During early few years, Information security is directly a straight forward process of securing the physical components and the simple document checking scheme. The primary information security threat comes by physical theft of the devices or spying the data from the middle and damaging it. Information security is nothing but the method of securing data, giving protection to datas confidentiality, availability and the integrity of information. Security of information is needed at every phase of processing, storage and transmission. All these can be achieved by the technology, education, policy, training and awareness. References Axelrod, C., Bayuk, J. and Schutzer, D. (2009). Enterprise information security and privacy. Boston: Artech House. Carlet, C. (2009). Editorial: Cryptography and Communications, Volume 1, Issue 1. Cryptogr. Commun., 1(1), pp.1-2. Cheswick, W. and Bellovin, S. (1994). Firewalls and Internet security. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley. Katsikas, S. and Gritzalis, S. (2006). Security issues of IT outsourcing. Bradford, England: Emerald Group Pub. Kirkby, A. (2001). Internet Trust And Security. Network Security, 2001(9), p.6. Lai, C. (2012). Security Issues on Machine to Machine Communications. KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems. Merkow, M. and Breithaupt, J. (2000). The complete guide to Internet security. New York: AMACOM. Oriyano, S. (2013). Cryptography. New York: McGraw-Hill Education. Peltier, T., Peltier, J. and Blackley, J. (2005). Information security fundamentals. Boca Raton, Fla.: Auerbach Publications. Phoha, V. (2002). Internet security dictionary. New York: Springer. Preetham, V. (2002). Internet security and firewalls. Cincinnati, Ohio: Premier Press. Reddy, P. and Padmavathamma, M. (2007). An authenticated key exchange protocol in elliptic curve cryptography. Journal of Discrete Mathematical Sciences and Cryptography, 10(5), pp.697-705. Shim, J., Shim, J., Qureshi, A. and Siegel, J. (2000). The international handbook of computer security. Chicago, Ill.: Glenlake Pub. St. Denis, T. and Johnson, S. (2007). Cryptography for developers. Rockland, MA: Syngress Pub. Stewart, J. (2011). Network security, firewalls, and VPNs. Sudbury, Mass.: Jones Bartlett Learning. The Basics of Information Security. (2014). Network Security, 2014(9), p.4. Tipton, H. and Krause, M. (2005). Information security management handbook. [London]: Taylor Francis e-Library. Vacca, J. (2007). Practical Internet security. New York, NY: Springer. Wright, O. (2014). Social Engineering. Engineering Technology Reference. Zelkowitz, M. (2004). Information security. Amsterdam: Elsevier Academic Press.